04/27/10
Insects and other foods the trout may be eating:
1.    Blue-winged Olives
2.    Little Short Horned Sedges
3.    American March Browns
4.    Cinnamon Sedges (Caddisflies) (Abrams Creek)
5.    Green Sedges (Caddisflies)
6.    Little Sister Caddisflies (Abrams Creek)
7.    Pale Evening Duns
8.    Little Yellow Stoneflies -Yellow Sallies
9.    Eastern Green Drakes (Abrams Creek)
10.  Giant Stoneflies
11.  Light Cahills
12.  Sculpin, baitfish and small crayfish (Imitate with streamers)
13.  Midges


LIttle Yellow Stoneflies -Yellow Sally
I have done this before but for those who are not familiar with the Smokies or who
may not have read previous articles I have written about the Little Yellow Stoneflies,
I will repeat some things I think are important. First of all, common and scientific
names throw many anglers simply because most of us know little Latin. In this case
the name "Little Yellow Stoneflies" is a common name for a family of stoneflies
(Periodidae). There are only nine families of stoneflies, so as you can imagine,
there are lots of species involved in the family. So, when you hear the name "Little
Yellow Stonefly" in reference to a family, it is a specific group of stoneflies, and by
the way, not just those that happen to be yellow. Some are not yellow and even
more confusing is there are many yellow stoneflies that are not in this family. The
thing I am getting to that is important is
there are lots of stoneflies called
"Yellow Sallies".

In the Smokies, these species are in the Chloroperlidae family and are a mixture of
little yellow and little greens although the family is called the Little Green family.:
Chloroperlidae Family species in the park:
Alloperla atlantica Baumann 1974 Green
Alloperla caudata Frison 1934 Yellow
Alloperla chloris Frison Green
Alloperla nanina Banks Green
Alloperla neglecta Frison 1935 Green
Alloperla usa Ricker 1952 Green
Suwallia marginata (Banks 1897) Not sure
Sweltsa lateralis (Banks 1911) Not sure
Sweltsa mediana (Banks 1911) Not sure
Sweltsa urticae (Ricker 1952) Not sure

In the Smokies, these are in the Perlodidae Family and consist mostly of little yellow
and brown stoneflies: The
Isoperia genus includes the species that rightly should
be called Yellow Sallies:
Perlodidae Family members in the park:
Clioperla clio (Newman 1839)
Cultusdecisus isolatus (Banks)
Cultus verticalis (Banks 1920)
Diploperla duplicata (Banks 1920)
Diploperla robusta Stark & Gaufin 1974
Helopicus subvarians (Banks 1920)
Isogenoides hansoni (Ricker 1952)
Isoperla bellona Banks 1911
Isoperla dicala Frison 1942
Isoperla distincta Nelson 1976
Isoperla frisoni Illies 1966
Isoperla holochlora           All bold Isoperia species are all true Yellow Sallies
Isoperla lata Frison 1942
Isoperla orata Frison 1942
Isoperla similis (Hagen 1861)
Malirekus hastatus (Banks 1920)
Oconoperla innubila (Needham & Claassen 1925)
Remenus bilobatus (Needham & Claassen 1925)
Yugus arinus (Frison 1942)


Now, that you see the stonefly species that have been identified in Great Smoky
Mountains national park that are yellow in color, you can see why this hatch last so
long and why you often hear anglers saying they saw some Yellow Sallies
throughout much of the season. What they mean is they saw yellow stoneflies. By
the way, Golden stoneflies are mostly yellow but easily separated because of their
size.

Here is the good news about this.
It doesn't matter because they all look and
behave almost exactly alike.

Species of little yellow stoneflies, and I am not sure which one or ones, are
beginning to show up now in the Smokies. It is a hatch you always want to be
prepared to fish because they exist not only in various species but
in huge
numbers.
They are a very important part of the trout's diet.

As simple as it is in terms of matching either the nymph or the adult Yellow Sally,
many anglers still fish the hatch wrong. In fact, I think most of them do. When they
start seeing the adults flying, in the bushes or on the banks, they start fishing an
adult fly pattern. This shouldn't be done until you actually spot trout eating the
adults. That means the egg laying adults. That is the only time an adult stonefly
gets on the water. They hatch out of the water and they don't go back on the water
until the females deposit their eggs or the males happen to die and fall on the water.
That is actually rare because they mate and die in the bushes and on the banks,
not over the water like mayflies in the air. So whey you fish an adult imitation, you
should be trying to imitate the egg laying females. The females may hatch and live
out of the water for a few days before they begin to deposit their eggs. So often,
anglers are casting a dry fly imitation of the adult when the trout are not looking for
them on the surface.

Where you can always catch trout during a Yellow Sally hatch is late in the day near
the banks on an imitation of the nymph. I'll get into that tomorrow.