05/29/09

Insects and other foods the trout may be eating:
1.   Blue-winged Olives - mostly Little BWO - Isolated hatches
2.   Giant Black Stoneflies - hatching
3.   Cinnamon Caddis - Mostly Abrams Creek
4    Light Cahills - hatching
5.   Midges - hatching in isolated locations
6.   Little Short-horned Sedges - should hatch randomly for 2-3 months
7.   American March Browns - hatching but randomly in isolated locations
8.   Streamers - matching sculpin, baitfish and small crawfish
9.   Little Yellow Stoneflies - hatching
10. Green Sedges - hatching
11. Little Sister Caddisflies - Mostly Abrams Creek
12. Eastern Pale Evening Duns - (called Sulfurs by some)
13. Sulphurs - hatching in isolated areas
14. Golden Stonefly - hatching
15. Little Green Stonefly - hatching


Little Green Stoneflies:
The “Little Green Stonefly” (“Chloroerlidae Family”) are very similar to the “Little
Yellow” stoneflies. Let me stop and try to straighten out what many anglers get
confused. I have no idea why the scientific community will refer to aquatic insects
almost always by scientific name (Latin Name) but when it comes to stoneflies they
often add the common names like Little Green, Little Yellow, Little Brown, etc. when
talking about families of stoneflies. The color has absolutely nothing to do with why
they are categorized by such common names. Little Green Stoneflies are
sometimes more yellow than Green. Many species of them are brown. Little Yellow
Stoneflies are sometimes more green than yellow. Little Greens have different tails,
legs, marking on their heads and antennae than Little Yellows. So, when you read
Little Green or Little Brown, or Little Yellow Family of stoneflies, it means nothing to
do with color as odd as that may sound. Maybe that is why the scientists like using
the family names in this case  - just prove that common names are worthless. Now,
after all of that, I will also say that what you should look for in imitations of the
stoneflies is shape, color and size.
If you happen to know that the "real" Little
Green Stoneflies are hatching but they are in fact the color brown, use a
Little Brown stonefly imitation.

Little Yellow Stoneflies are small to medium sized stoneflies that emerge in the
spring and summer months. Although they are never any super hatches, the
long emergence period of anywhere from thirty to sixty days, makes this family
important. The nymphs are usually a plain green or brown, mostly brown.   
The adults vary from a very bright green to a yellow color. All of them have short
tails. Like most stoneflies, cold mountain streams such as those found in the
Smokies are an excellent habitat. They tend to hatch in more smooth, slower
moving or moderate water than the others.

Just to make sure you know, there are nine families of stoneflies that exist
nationwide.
Species from all nine families are found in the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park.  

Stonefly Families:
Capniidae family sp - Little Brown Stoneflies (Snowflies)
Leuctridae family sp - Little Brown Stoneflies  (Needlefly)
Nemouridae family sp -Little Brown Stoneflies (Forestfly)
Taeniopterygidae family sp - Little Brown Stoneflies (Winter)
Chloropertidae family sp - Little Green Stoneflies (This series of articles)
Perlidae family sp - Golden Stoneflies
Perlodidae - Little Yellow Stoneflies
Peltoperlidae - Little Yellow Stoneflies (Roach Flies)
Pteronarcys - Giant Stoneflies

In this case we are only concerned with the Little Green Stoneflies. These are
the species known to exist in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

Alloperla atlantica
Alloperla caudata
Alloperla chloris
Alloperla nanina
Alloperla neglecta
Alloperla usar
Haploperla brevis
(A Yellow Colored stonefly confused as a Little Yellow Sally)
Rasvena terna
Suwallia marginata  
Sweltsa lateralis  
Sweltsa mediana
Sweltsa urticae                                                                          
Haploperla brevis     
                                                   

This Little Green Stonefly is often called a “Little Yellow Stonefly”, Yellow Sally
and sometimes, the “Wee Yellow” Stonefly”. I mention it separately because it is
often confused with the Little Yellows. It is a small yellow-green winged fly with a
green body. The nymph is a clinger that lives just under one year. They do not
hatch in a consistent manner, so it is not really known for certain as to when you
should expect to encounter them. I show June and July on the hatch chart because I
have found them during those two months for certain. They are a 16 hook size.

Copyright James Marsh 2009