Copyright 2013 James Marsh

Insects and other foods the trout
should be eating:
1.    BWOs (Little BWOs)
2.    Giant Black Stoneflies
3.    Light Cahills
4.    Cinnamon Caddis (mostly Abrams)
5.    Eastern Pale Evening Duns
6.    Little Short-horned Sedges
7.    American March Browns
8.    Eastern Green Drakes (Abrams)
9.    Little Yellow Stoneflies
Most available - Other types of food:
10.   Sculpin, Minnows (Streamers)
11.   Inch Worms

This Week's Featured Trout Food - Yellow Sally

Little Yellow Stoneflies consist of a large group of little stoneflies that are very common in the streams of
Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Little Yellow Stoneflies is the common name used for the Periodidae
Family of stoneflies. Many anglers call them all Yellow Sallies. As I mention frequently, common names can
be helpful in some cases but very confusing in others. The Yellow Sally is one of those catch all names but
at least the name usually fairly closely identifies stoneflies that look and behave much alike. All of the books
written about stoneflies refer to the
Isoperia genus of the Periodidae Family of stoneflies as Yellow Sallies.
The books are consist on that but the name "Yellow Sally" is used by anglers throughout the nation for a
large variety of stoneflies, most of which are not Perididae
Isoperia species. That's certainly true of many
stonefly species that exist in the Smokies. In fact, we've noticed that some of the species from the
Chloroperidae family of stoneflies are even called Yellow Sallies.

The streams of Great Smoky Mountains National Park are full of stoneflies. In fact, they contain species  
from all 9 (nine) of the stonefly families. Most trout streams fall short on that. Some don't have any.
The following species of stoneflies exist in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, all of which are in the
Perlodidae Family and consist mostly of little yellow and brown stoneflies. The
Isoperia genus (bold letters)
includes the species that rightly should be called Yellow Sallies:

Perlodidae Family species in the park:
Clioperla clio
Cultusdecisus isolatus
Cultus verticalis
Diploperla duplicata
Diploperla robusta
Helopicus subvarians
Isogenoides hansoni
Isoperla bellona
Isoperla dicala
Isoperla distincta
Isoperla frisoni
Isoperla holochlora          
Isoperla lata
Isoperla orata
Isoperla similis
Malirekus hastatus
Oconoperla innubila
Remenus bilobatus
Yugus arinus

The following species that exist in the Smokies are in the Chloroperlidae family and are a mixture of
little yellow and little green stoneflies although the family is called the "Little Green family":

Chloroperlidae Family species in the park:
Alloperla atlantica
Alloperla caudata
Alloperla chloris
Alloperla nanina
Alloperla neglecta
Suwallia marginata
Sweltsa lateralis
Sweltsa mediana
Sweltsa urticae

Some Periodidae stoneflies are not yellow, and even more confusing is the fact there are many yellow
colored stoneflies that are not even in this family. Even more confusing is that some of the Chloroperlidae
stoneflies are yellow and several are chartreuse.

Now that you see the large number of stonefly species that have been identified in Great Smoky Mountains
national park that are yellow in color, you can see why anglers think this hatch last so long and why you
often hear anglers saying they saw some Yellow Sallies throughout much of the season.

By the way, Golden stoneflies are mostly yellow, but they are easily distinguished from the Little Yellows by
their size.

Here's the good news about all of the confusing names. It matters very little because they all look
and behave almost exactly alike.
This means you imitate them all about the same way using the same
strategies  and techniques.

Species of little yellow stoneflies are beginning to show up now in the Smokies. It is a hatch you always want
to be prepared to fish because they exist not only in various species but in huge numbers. They are a very
important part of the trout's diet.

As simple as it is in terms of matching either the nymph or the adult Yellow Sally, many anglers still fish the
hatch wrong. In fact, I think most of them do. When they start seeing the adults flying, in the bushes or on
the banks, they start fishing an adult fly pattern. Because the trout see them often it works to some extent,
but it is far more effective to imitate the adults when they are depositing their eggs. That is the only time an
adult stonefly gets on the water.
They hatch out of the water and they don't go back on the water
until the females deposit their eggs or the males happen to die and fall on the water.

The females may hatch and live out of the water for a few days before they begin to deposit their eggs. So
often, anglers are casting a dry fly imitation of the adult when the trout are not that prone to take them on
the surface.
New Schedule of Daily
Mondays: Weather and Stream
Conditions Forecast - Coming Week
Tuesdays: Fly Fishing Strategies -
Which Flies To Use - Coming Week
Wednesday: Fishing Tales
Thursday: Smoky Mountains Fishing
Friday: Getting Started
Saturday: Fly Fishing School
Sunday: This Week's Featured Trout
More Options For Selecting Flies:
Email us with the dates you will be
fishing the park and we will send
you a list of our fly suggestions.
Please allow up to 24 hours for a

2. Call us at 800-594-4726 and we
will help you decide which flies you

3. Call or email us with a budget for
flies and we will select them and get
them to you in time for your trip.

Shipping is free in the U. S. for all
orders of any size. Orders over $50
are shipped free via Priority Mail.
Above and Below: Perfect
Fly "Little Yellow Stonefly'
You will get a lot of rejections but the
Neversink Caddis will work to some
extent for the Little Yellow Stoneflies:
We don't recommend them but we sell
these for $.79 each delivered for those
on a tight budget that enjoy casting
more than catching. These are the
flies sold by most all of the mom and
pop fly shops for the hatch.