05/02/12
Insects and other foods the trout should be eating:
Hatching:
1.    Blue-winged Olives and Little BWOs
2.    Green Sedges (Caddisflies)
3.    Cinnamon Caddis (Mostly Abrams Creek)
4.    Little Short Horned Sedges
5.    Eastern Green Drakes (Abrams Creek)
6.    Hendricksons & Red Quills
7.    American March Browns
8.    Giant Stoneflies
9.    Light Cahills
10.  Little Yellow Stoneflies (Yellow Sally)
11.  Eastern Pale Evening Duns
12.  Sulphurs

Most available/ Other types of available food:
13.    Sculpin, Minnows (Streamers)

KISS A Bug Series - Little Yellow Stoneflies - Part 1
Stoneflies In General

Let's Get Stonefly Smart the Fast and Easy Way:
I'll start this out as "Keep It Simple Stupid" As I know how. There are nine families of
stoneflies
. They are as follows: I'm using the family names followed by what the
scientist use for common names.
Using what anglers use for common names would take
several pages and result in only one thing - total confusion. If you continue to read on, you will
see why.

1. Capniidae:- Winter Stoneflies - These are also called Snowflies
2. Chloroperlidae - Green Stoneflies - These are also called Sallfilies
3. Leuctridae - Rollwinged Stoneflies - These are also called Needleflies
4. Nemouridae - Nemourid Stoneflies - These are also called Forestflies
5. Peltoperlidae - Roachlike Stoneflies
6. Perlidae - Common Stoneflies - These are also called Golden Stoneflies
7. Periodidae - Perlodid Stoneflies - These are called Springflies and some Yellow Stones
8. Pteronarcidae - Giant Stoneflies - These are also called Salmonflies
9. Taeniopterygidae - Winter Stoneflies - These are also called Willowflies

Species of all nine of these families exist in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

As you can see
the Little Yellow Stoneflies are in the Periodidae family of stoneflies.
This family contains some very important species that are found in most freestone streams
across the country.
They are very plentiful in the Smokies.

The Nymphs Confuse Most Anglers Because of the following:
Little Yellow Stonefly and Golden stonefly nymphs are not easy to tell apart in their early
stages of development. The Little Yellows are often mistaken for early instars of the Pelodidae
family.
The Little Yellow stoneflies look much like the Golden stonefly nymphs when
the Goldens are little and still in their early stages of development. The easiest way to tell the
nymphs apart is the Little Yellows are more slender in appearance. They also don't have an
obvious thorax, their gills are different, and they tend to have longer tails and antennae.

There two major subfamilies in the Periodidae Family:
The subfamily Isoperlinae, or Stripetails - the Little Yellows, and the subfamily Periodinae,
or Springflies
which has some medium browns,, yellows and some olives.  The large western
Skwala stoneflies are in the Springfly group.

The Isoperlinae subfamily (Little Yellows) contains the very large
Isoperla genus that
includes most of the species anglers call Little Yellow Stones or Yellow Sallies.
The
isoperla genus is huge, with sixty species. Eight of these are know to exist in the streams of
Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Now, it should be easy to understand why anglers talk
about Yellow Sallies hatching for a long period of time EVEN WHEN THEY GET IT RIGHT.
Isoperla bellona
Isoperla dicala
Isoperla distincta
Isoperla frisoni
Isoperla holochlora
Isoperla lata
Isoperla orata
Isoperla similis

Why Scientist use Stripetails and anglers use Yellow Sallies:
Although anglers usually call them Little Yellow Stones or Yellow Sallies, the scientific common
name for this genus is Stripetail. The scientific common name Stripetail  is a better name to
use because
not all of them are necessarily either little or yellow.

Now in addition to what we call Yellow Sallies, these species of the same family are also
present in the park. These are called a little bit of everything.
Clioperla clio
Cultusdecisus isolatus
Cultus verticalis
Diploperla duplicata
Diploperla robusta
Helopicus subvarians
Isogenoides hansoni
Malirekus hastatus
Oconoperla innubila
Remenus bilobatus )
Yugus arinus
Yugus bulbosus

Now let me muddy up the water even more. There's also many species of the
Chloroperidae Family of Little Green Stoneflies that are more yellow than they are green. I'm
referring to the adults, buy the way. These common names all refer to the adults, not the
nymphs.  
Most of them are chartreuse, which is a mixture of green and yellow. We have
Perfect Fly imitations of them that are different because the nymphs are different and most of
the adults are green.

When Do They Hatch?
Considering all of the above various stoneflies can be called Yellow Sallies or Little Yellow
stoneflies, PLUS, many species of Golden Stoneflies in the nymphal stage of life are confused
with the Little Yellows, PLUS the fact the Little Greens can be yellow, it should be getting quite
clear why they get a little confusing.
That's why I show Little Yellow Stoneflies (Yellow
Sallies) on the Smoky Mountain hatch charts hatching from May 1 through July 15th
and then again from September 1 through October 15th.

Now so far, if you haven't gained anything else from this article, you should picked up on the
fact that Little Yellow Stoneflies are very plentiful in the Smokies. I'll summarize this way.
If the
Little Yellow Stoneflies are not the most important insects in the streams of the
Smokies, they are certainly ahead of what ever is in second place.
If that don't get your
blood boiling, listen up. A few years ago, I video taped Angie catching seven consecutive
rainbow trout on seven consecutive cast fishing a frenzy of Little Yellow Stonefly activity at the
mouth of Porters Creek. I stood on the bridge trying to catch the stoneflies to video but every
time I set the camera down to try to catch a stonefly, she hooked another trout.
Copyright 2012 James Marsh